Categories
Uncategorized

The Spiderweb of Influence:

Degrees of influence between actors on the world stage knocking on the PMO’s door 

I read today about the Russians doing maneuvers in the Arctic. Following is some background work, researched nine years ago, inspecting the Arctic dynamics. To hazard a pun, global warming has warmed up the special interests of northern nations concerning the Northwest Passage for capital gains.

Oil, gas, defense and security, as well as shipping lanes are concerns regarding Nares Strait and Canada’s sovereignty rights over Hans Island (Nares Strait connects Baffin Bay to the Arctic). Hans Island is thus “neighbour” to the Russians and Norwegians, vying for fisheries, oil and the environment. Russia’s and Norway’s military combine to keep the Arctic stable. Canadian and Danish military do cooperative emergency and security measures. The U. S. military is stationed in Greenland, Kingdom of Denmark.

This section analyzes the interactive networking influences of the Arctic Council and the lobbyists who are working on influencing the Prime Minister on these issues.  

The members of the Arctic Council are mapping the seabed to allocate the new resource territory. They are working with multinational oil and gas corporations. The Arctic is warming up for shipping and the mining of resources. The Kingdom of Denmark in particular has the highest centrality of influence among the Arctic members.     

The Arctic Council

Both the United States and Denmark are jointly mapping the seabed with Canada to agreeably establish underwater borders. The yearly iced-over periods at the Beaufort Sea interrupt the mapping procedures making the process much longer than the Prime Minister of Canada would have liked. As well, a recent poll has indicated that Arctic sovereignty is of paramount importance to Canadians. The Council has cooperated with efforts on climate change, resource extraction, transport, seabed mapping, effective multilateralism, and so on. It is agreed that members will inform each other of activities regarding Hans Island.

The Multinational Oil and Gas Corporations

The oil and gas lobbyists are multinationals who work together around the world on occasion, and are no respecters of ideologies of a country. While the Arctic Council is painstakingly mapping the United States-Canada-Denmark seabeds to avoid conflicts over mining of natural resources in the future, the Prime Minister has shown impatience, likely from pressures to show strength in sovereignty over the Arctic, and in a thirst for the gas and oil that cannot be tapped until the seabed boundaries are agreed on. The tensions are three-fold: claim the resources before someone else does, secure the North militarily and functionally with air and water transport, and to protect the fragile northern ecosystem in the process.

The oil and gas people have a narrow business focus and will be tempted to compromise ethics to achieve their aims. This would include indigenous rights and ecology. The Nenets tribe of the North of Russia are already suffering from Putin’s installation of a railroad for future oil and gas mining. It seems that no area of indigenous land is untouched from oil and gas conglomerate concerns. The reindeer are breaking their legs on the stones and ties of the railroad and are breaking their antlers. The Nenet tribe’s whole way of life revolve around the reindeer. In another part of the world, as an example of corporate character, Chevron and Exxon in West Africa are examples of opportunistic activity which can bring scandal with it as bribery to sway politicians was part of their corporate package. 

Shipping and Security

Nations and corporations stake claim on land and prepare for the opening of the Northwest Passage. Many security groups are keen to be included in decision making and direct involvement as evidenced by the enclosed list of security lobbyists. Denmark is doing Northern security operations with United States, Canada, and with Russia, making it the most strategic player on the board. 

Denmark has a familial history with the other Nordic countries Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. Via Norway, Denmark has a connection to Russia. Canada, the Danish Kingdom’s neighbour, and the United States stationed in Greenland, secure the North cooperatively. Denmark has a high degree of closeness to every nation in the Arctic Council.

Comments

High reliability of sources and confidence in these sources.

 Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic And the Oil and Gas Corporations Who Want Their Natural Resources

Baffin Bay – Inuit Peoples – Shell Corporation

St. Petersburg, Russia – Nenets tribe – Chevron, Exxon, Shell, ConcoPhillips

Mackenzie Delta – Inuvialuit Alaskan Alliance, Guichim Nation – Shell, ConocoPhillips

Beaufort Sea – Inuvialuit Peoples – Exxon, Shell, Imperial Oil, ConocoPhillips

Norman Wells, North West Territories – Sahtu and Metis’ Norman Wells – Imperial Oil

 The Arctic Council under the Ottawa Declaration

 Canada, Finland, Denmark with Greenland and Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation, United States of America, Indigenous peoples of the Arctic Region

Canadian Government’s Oil and Gas Lobbyists:

Chevron Canada Resources: Dan Seeking, consultant (also consultant with Imperial Oil)

Exxon Mobil, Texas HQS: Iraq, Kurdistan. In 2007, USA and Canada were vying for the Beaufort Sea which spreads over Canada and its claimed Archipelago. Parson’s Lake (gas).

Shell: Chukchi Sea, adjacent to Beaufort Sea (part of Beaufort Sea is along Alaska). Beaufort Sea – sink exploration wells of Alaska.

Imperial Oil: Dan Seeking, consultant (also consultant with Chevron Canada). Imperial oil was also a concern in the 2007 USA and Canada vying for the Beaufort Sea. Imperial Oil environmentally challenged.

ConocoPhillips: Chukchi Sea is a principle port for Russia. Parson’s Lake (gas). Amauligak (Mackenzie Delta and Beauport Sea areas).

Lobbyists for Arctic Security:

Nasittuq Corporation 

  • Member of the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business
  • Maintains the North Warning System (NWS) –radar sites
  • Function as Arctic Sentinels for NORAD

Joint venture with:

 ATCO Structures and Logistics Limited 

Pan Arctic Inuit Logistics Corporation (PAIL)

  • Technical and management services to Canada and U.S.A. government customers

(Department of National Defence and the U.S. Air Force)

 CAE Inc. 

  • Simulating and modeling technologies for civil aviation and defence.

Canadian Association of Defence and Security Industries (CADSI) 

  • In-house Organization

Arva Industries :

  • specializes in work equipment for military, industrial, rail, and resource sectors.

Cascade Aerospace Inc. 

  • Privately held Canadian specialty aerospace and defence contractor focused on providing 

long-term integrated aircraft.

Council of Marine Carriers 

Seaspan Marine Corporation 

  • Seaspan is an association of Canadian companies providing coastal and deepsea transportation, bunkering, ship repair and shipbuilding services in Western North America. 
  • World Wildlife Fund in partnership with Seaspan.

International Fund for Animal Welfare 

More Sources on Arctic life: http://m.sciencemag.org/content/297/5586/1490.short 

Ibbitson, John. “Who Owns the Arctic?: Dispute Over Hans Island Nears Resolution Now for the Beaufort Sea.” (Globe and Mail, Arctic Sovereignty and International Relations, 27 January 2011). Topics on the table for Hans Island are shared jurisdiction of the island, and running the border down the middle of Hans Island. This is still to be determined. http://byers.typepad.com/arctic/2011/01/dispute-over-hans-island-nears-resolution-now-for-the-beaufort-sea.html; Jill Mahoney, “Canada Willing To Fight For Its Arctic” (Arctic Council, 28 January 2011). http://www.arcticprogress.com/tag/arctic-council .Sourced 30 November 2011. 

“Who Owns the Arctic?: Canada and Denmark Joint Statement on Hans Island (2005)” (New York, United Nations, Arctic Sovereignty and International Relations, 19 September 2005). The Ministers of Foreign Affairs from Denmark and Canada reaffirmed their status as friends, allies, and Arctic neighbours; the Deputy Premier of Greenland and the M.P. for the Yukon attended the Ministers’ meeting at the United Nations. http://byers.typepad.com/arctic/canadadenmark-joint-statement-on-hans-island.html Sourced 24 November 2011. 

“Partnership with Greenland“ (Embassy of the United States: Copenhagen-Denmark) http://denmark.usembassy.gov/policy/partnership-with-greenland.html sourced 14 December 2011. 

Heather Timmons. “Company News; ChevronTexaco and Exxon Mobil in West Africa Oil Deal” (New York times, 1 February 2005). Chevron and Exxon signed deal with Nigeria, Sao Tome,Principe to produce oil in the deep off-shore waters of West Africa, enticed by the estimated four billion barrels of oil. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B02E7D9123BF932A35751C0A9639C8B63&ref=saotomeandprincipe Sourced 29 November 2011. 

Barry Meier and Jad Mouawad. “No Oil Yet, but African Isle Finds Slippery Dealings” (New York Times, 2 July 2007). The Environmental Remediation Holding Corporation (ERHC), set to cash in on the Sao Tome and Principe oil drillings, received allegations of improper payments by ERHC chairman Emeka Offor to government officials, including American Senator William J. Jefferson. Offor has been known to be one of the largest contributors to Nigeria’s ruling party. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/02/world/africa/02oil.html?ref=saotomeandprincipe Sourced 29 November 2011. 

“Rosneft talking to Chevron on Arctic cooperation” (St. Petersburg, Russia, Reuters, 17 June 2011). After the failure of talks with BP Oil, there is potential cooperation between the Russian oil Rosneft and the multinational Chevron.  http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/17/rosneft-chevron-idUKLDE75G1DN20110617 Sourced 29 November 2011. 

Office of the Commissioner of Lobbying of Canada. https://ocl-cal.gc.ca/app/secure/orl/lrrs/do/publicBasicSearch?language=en_CA Sourced 25 November 2011. 

“Rosneft talking to Chevron on Arctic cooperation” (St. Petersburg, Russia, Reuters, 17 June 2011). After the failure of talks with BP Oil, there is potential cooperation between the Russian oil Rosneft and the multinational Chevron.  http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/17/rosneft-chevron-idUKLDE75G1DN20110617 Sourced 29 November 2011. 

University of Calgary Faculty of Arts. “Arctic Timeline-Developments in Foreign Policy” July 2007, July 2001. http://cmss.ucalgary.ca/foreignpolicy Sourced 25 November 2011. 

University of Calgary Faculty of Arts. “Arctic Timeline-Developments in Foreign Policy” January 2008, September 2011, January 2008. http://cmss.ucalgary.ca/foreignpolicy; Shell Corporation. “Shell in the Arctic” http://www-static.shell.com/static/innovation/downloads/arctic/shell_in_the_arctic.pdf Both sourced 25 November 2011. 

University of Calgary Faculty of Arts. “Arctic Timeline-Developments in Foreign Policy” July 2007. http://cmss.ucalgary.ca/foreignpolicy Sourced 25 November 2011. 

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Archived Report: “Canadian Sovereignty in the Arctic: Challenges for the RCMP.” 5 June 2007. http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/ci-rc/reports-rapports/cs-sc/index-eng.htm ; University of Calgary Faculty of Arts. “Arctic Timeline-Developments in Foreign Policy” January 2008, January 2008. http://cmss.ucalgary.ca/foreignpolicy Sourced 25 November 2011. 

Pettersen, Trude. Barents Observer: cross-border news. “Norway to strengthen military cooperation with Russia: Norway wants stronger military cooperation with Russia, says Minister of Defense Grete Faremo.” http://www.barentsobserver.com/norway-to-strengthen-military-cooperation-with-russia.4889180-16334.html Norway and Russia are committed to greater military ties to “keep the area stable,” as well as taking care of the North’s fisheries, environment, and resources. Sourced 30 November 2011. 

Mackenzie Gas Project. “Parsons Lake Development Plan Application Under the Canada and Oil Gas Operations Act”  http://www.mackenziegasproject.com/theProject/regulatoryProcess/applicationSubmission/Applicationscope/parsons.html Sourced 25 November 2011; MGM Energy Corporation: Mackenzie Delta. The Mackenzie Delta is at the end of the Mackenzie River which enters the Beaufort Sea. http://www.mgmenergy.com/operating-areas/mackenzie-delta.html; Great Canadian Rivers: Mackenzie River Culture. “The Inuvialuit Rise Again”. Almost wiped out in the early 1900s, the Inuvialuit are growing once again and formed the Alaskan Alliance. The Canadian federal government agreed to their control of the Sachs Harbour, Holman, Paulatuk, Tuktoyaktuk, Aklavik, and Inuvik areas. In the upper Mackenzie Delta there is the Gwich’in Nation (People of the Caribou) includes 11 major bands from the Mackenzie River to Alaska. http://www.greatcanadianrivers.com/rivers/mack/culture-home.html. Sourced 30 November 2011. 

Norman Wells Land Corporation: Representing the Sahtu and Metis of Norman Wells.  http://nwlc.ca/ Sourced 30 November 2011. 

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Archived Report: “Canadian Sovereignty in the Arctic: Challenges for the RCMP.” 5 June 2007. http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/ci-rc/reports-rapports/cs-sc/index-eng.htm Sourced 25 November 2011. 

“Russian Arctic Tribe At Risk From Yamal Gas Projects“ (Indigenous Peoples Issues and Resources: The Leading Source for News, Articles, Reports, Videos and More on Indigenous Issues Around the World, 7 October 2009) http://indigenouspeoplesissues.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2263:russian-arctic-tribe-at-risk-from-yamal-gas-projects&catid=56:europe-indigenous-peoples&Itemid=78 Despite the Nenets tribe in Arctic and tundra reindeer herders, Putin is pressing forward to get the gas. Sourced 11 December 2001. 

http://www.nasittuq.com; http://www.eluta.ca/work-at-nasittuq Sourced 25 November 2011. 

https://www.defenceandsecurity.ca/index.php?action=mbrProfiles.resultsA&ltr=C; https://www.defenceandsecurity.ca/index.php?action=mbrProfiles.viewProfile&profileID=394 “Cascade Aerospace Inc. specializes in the comprehensive program management of military & commercial aircraft fleets.” Thus CADSI and Cascade, both lobby groups, contract with one another. Sourced 30 November 2011. 

http://www.arvaindustries.com/aboutus.php Sourced 30 November 2011. 

http://www.cascadeaerospace.com/ Sourced 30 November 2011. 

Council of Marine Carriers: The voice of western Canadian tug and barge operators. http://www.comc.cc/ Sourced 30 November 2011. 

http://www.seaspan.com/seaspanmarine/index.php The Seaspan Community includes partnership with the World Wildlife Fund. Sourced 30 November 2011. 

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.