Canadian Bureaucracy II

More Flexibility Departmental managers were requiring more flexiblility in managing. By the mid-1970’s there was an effort to coordinate approval for resources allocation with already approved programs to efficiently meet objectives (22). Goals and objectives are established in implementable terms by the bureaucracy in a way that gives flesh to a policy. The efficacy of […]

Canadian Bureaucracy

Bureaucratic Influence Upon Canadian Policy Making Janet A McDonald. 1994, ammended 2010. Originally for Political Science 1F90, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Professor Bill Mattheson. The Canadian civil service, in its increasing complexity, exerts significant political and policy influence in the effort to provide good government. Several factors play a part in its development. Power […]

Municipal Government

Canadian Municipalities Municipalities in Canada are not entrenched in the Constitution. Never has been. That means they are vulnerable to the political whims of the upper tiers of province and federal decisions. Effectiveness, economies of scale, terms and rates, lack of equity among municipal governments, effective accountabilityare all issues that face one in municipal governments. […]

What is Communism?

History of Communism Communism as an ideology has been the best critique of capitalism. Marxism’s Brand of Socialism See Hegel, Engels. Lenin applied their theories. Hegel looked at the clash of ideas, of opposites and out of the crisis comes synthesis forming a new idea. Marx puzzled over master exploiting slave, lord exploiting serf, capitalist […]

What is Socialism?

History of Socialism  Socialism is an economic concept with important political implications. In context we see that it is a reaction to liberalism and conservatism moving away from the individual verses group rights and needs to an attempt at a wholistic approach that all of society is interconnected.  Socialism: a system of communal or social […]

What is a Conservative?

History of Conservatism Conservative: (L.) to conserve, save, preserve status quo; to maintain the best of what there is. Edmund Burke (1729-1797) Reflections on the French Revolution: 1. humans are inclined to be bad rather than good, irrational, feelings dominate, 2. unequal in abilities, power, aptitude and capacity, 3. are equal legally and morally. The […]

What is a Liberal?

Liberalism – 18th and 19th Centuries People are rational (reason), equal (no classes). Progress is inevitable (optomistic). Reform, not revolution. The government is active but has limits. John Locke, John Stuart Mill declared the government is to prevent people from harming one another. Marxists feel that liberalism is despicable, crass, materialistic. Canadian  liberals are not as class conscious: […]

Romantic Nationalism

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 18th Century Labelled romantic nationalism or social contract, Rousseau’s theory was concerned for equality and liberty, the general will of all the people, the “noble savages.” Feelings stimulate us to do well. to develop, they need to live in a group where their natural goodness will flower, but that has not happened due […]

U. N. Defuses War -Methodology Continued

Primary Purpose #3 Achieve “international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms far all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion” (Khan, 494). The International Monetary Fund, The Economic and Social Council (ESOSOC), The […]

U.N. and Democracy

  It has been the United Nation’s position that democratic states rarely fight each other. They have taken on the role of election facilitators for Member States who request help as a peace strategy (Boutros-Ghali, 329). Boutros-Ghali stresses that it takes time for an entire society to willingly accept democratic values. He illustrated this point […]